Halacha for Monday 1 Cheshvan 5781 October 19 2020

Kiddush During Seuda Shelishit

Question: Is there any obligation or fine custom to recite Kiddush during Seuda Shelishit (the third Shabbat meal) just as we do before partaking of the Shabbat day meal?

Answer: The Rambam (Chapter 30 of Hilchot Shabbat, Halacha 9) states: “One must partake of three meals on Shabbat. One must likewise establish every one of these meals upon wine and break two loaves of bread.”

It would seem that according to the Rambam, just as there is an obligation to recite Kiddush before the first two Shabbat meals, i.e. the Shabbat night and Shabbat day meals, there is likewise an obligation to recite Kiddush before partaking of the third Shabbat meal as well.

The Tur (Chapter 291) quotes the words of the Rambam and notes, as follows: “The Rambam writes that one must establish the third Shabbat meal upon wine. However, my master and father, the Rosh, would not recite a blessing on wine before Seuda Shelishit, for Kiddush by day is compared to Kiddush at night: Just as one Kiddush on wine is sufficient for the entire night, so too, reciting Kiddush on wine during the day is sufficient for the entire day.” This means that the Tur also understood that the Rambam requires Kiddush to be recited before Seuda Shelishit; however, he disagrees and writes that reciting Kiddush on wine on Shabbat morning is sufficient for the entire day and one need not recite Kiddush again before Seuda Shelishit.

Indeed, several other Rishonim understood the words of the Rambam to mean that one must recite Kiddush on wine before Seuda Shelishit. Nevertheless, Maran Ha’Bet Yosef writes that the Tur’s understanding of the Rambam that he requires Kiddush to be recited before Seuda Shelishit is incorrect, for this is not what the Rambam meant. Rather, the Rambam only meant that one must drink wine during Seuda Shelishit but not that one must recite Kiddush at the beginning of this meal. The Bet Yosef proceeds to support his view based on the words of the Rambam in a different Halacha.

Similarly the Radbaz (Volume 5, Chapter 2104), who lived in the same generation as Maran Ha’Bet Yosef, writes that it is clear that the Rambam agrees that there is no obligation to recite Kiddush before Seuda Shelishit. Other great Poskim write likewise.

Maran Rabbeinu Ovadia Yosef zt”l deals with this issue as well (in his Chazon Ovadia-Shabbat, Part 2, page 341) and concludes that there is no obligation to recite Kiddush on wine before Seuda Shelishit in accordance with the prevalent custom of the Jewish nation which is to recite Kiddush only before the first two Shabbat meals. There is no obligation to recite Kiddush before Seuda Shelishit and it is merely a pious custom to drink some wine during Seuda Shelishit in order to fulfill the Rambam’s opinion who maintains that this is obligatory at least some time during the meal.

Maran zt”l adds that although some claim that according to the Kabbalah, one should recite Kiddush before Seuda Shelishit, this is incorrect; he proceeds to prove from the words of the saintly Ari z”l that Kiddush should not be recited before the third Shabbat meal. It is, nevertheless, proper to drink some wine during Seuda Shelishit according to the Kabbalah. This fits perfectly with the aforementioned opinion of the Rambam.

Summary: One should not recite Kiddush before partaking of Seuda Shelishit; however, it is preferable that one drink some wine during this meal.

Ask the Rabbi


8 Halachot Most Popular

Question: May one eat bread without washing one’s hands if one does not touch the bread with one’s hands directly and instead holds it with a napkin and like?

Answer: The Gemara in Masechet Chullin (107b) states: “The Sages permitted a cloth (i.e. they permitted eating bread without first washing one’s hands by wrapping one’s hands in a cloth) for those eating Terumah (meaning that during the time when the Bet Hamikdash still stood, befo......

Read Halacha

Salt on the Table

Question: Is there a halachic necessity to have salt placed on the table before reciting the Hamotzi blessing and is it necessary to observe this custom on weekdays as well? Answer: The Gemara (Berachot 40a) states: “Rava bar Shmuel said in the name of Rav Chiya: One may not recite the Hamo......

Read Halacha

Eating without First Washing One’s Hands

In the previous Halacha, we have explained that one may not be lenient and nullify the edict of washing one’s hands prior to eating bread; even if one does not touch the bread with one’s hands directly and merely holds it with gloves or a napkin, one may still not defy this edict. If one......

Read Halacha

The Laws of Washing One’s Hands for a Bread Meal

The Enactment of Washing One’s Hands for a Bread Meal There is a rabbinic enactment to wash one’s hands before sitting down to eat a bread meal. The Mishnah in Masechet Eduyot (Chapter 5) relates that Rabbi Eliezer ben Chanoch was excommunicated for having raised doubts about the necess......

Read Halacha


The “Asher Yatzar” Blessing vs. Birkat Hamazon

Question: In the previous Halacha, we have discussed if one becomes obligated to recite an after-blessing on food and before he does so, he uses the facilities and becomes obligated to recite the “Asher Yatzar” blessing, one should recite the “Asher Yatzar” blessing first and......

Read Halacha

A Power Outage on Shabbat

Question: Last Shabbat, there was a power outage and for six hours, we had no electricity. Later on in the day when the problem was repaired, the Plata (electric hotplate) turned back on. Is it permissible to eat the foods that were warmed on the hotplate? Answer: Regarding the aforementioned mat......

Read Halacha

Question: If one becomes obligated to recite an after-blessing after eating any food (for instance, by eating a Kezayit, approximately twenty-seven grams, of fruit) and before reciting the after-blessing, one used the facilities and becomes obligated to recite the “Asher Yatzar” blessing, which blessing must one recite first: Should one first recite the “Asher Yatzar” blessing or the after-blessing on the food one ate?

Answer: This question has already been discussed by the Maharshal (Rabbeinu Shlomo Luria, one of the foremost Acharonim who lived approximately five-hundred years ago in Eastern Poland and authored the Sefer Yam Shel Shlomo and others) in his responsa (Chapter 97) and writes that if one becomes obli......

Read Halacha

Reciting Birkat Hamazon in the Place One Has Eaten

Question: Is one obligated to recite Birkat Hamazon specifically where one has eaten bread or may one recite this blessing elsewhere? Answer: One who eats a bread meal must recite Birkat Hamazon in the place where one has eaten and one may not go to a different place and recite the blessing there......

Read Halacha