Halajá paramartes 24 Nissan 5782 abril 25 2022

ÉSTA HALAJÁ SE EDITA PARA LA ELEVACIÓN DEL ALMA DE

HAJAM YOM TOV YEDID HALEVY BEN ZAKIE Z"L

NEW YORK

USOS Y COSTUMBRES DURANTE LOS DÍAS DEL ´OMER

Es una costumbre generalizada en todas las comunidades judías no contraer enlace desde el comienzo del ´omer hasta el día treinta y cuatro del mismo.

En las responsas de lo gueoním (s. IX-XII) se cita como origen de esta costumbre el duelo, debido (Yebamot 62b) a la muerte de doce mil parejas de alumnos de Rabí Akivá que fallecieron durante este período –entre Pesah y Shabuot- por no haberse dispensado respeto mutuamente, todos ellos fallecieron en una plaga de “askara” –aparentemente difteria-.

El motivo por el cual a partir del día 34 del ´omer se puede contraer enlace lo hallamos en la obra Manhig (compuesta por Rabí Abraham bar Natan Hayarhí, vivió en Lunel en el año 1215) quien cita en nombre de Rabí Zerahya Halevy que halló un libro antiguo proveniente de España en el que se afirma que todos estos alumnos murieron en el lapso que transcurre entre Pesah y el treinta y cuatro día del ´omer. Y así lo afirman otros de los primeros grandes comentaristasdelo cual se infiere que los usos de duelo culminan el día treinta y cuatro por la mañana.

La costumbre entre las comunidades ashkenazitas, como dictamina Ram”a (cap. 493) es contraer enlace a partir del día 33 del ´omer, pues sostienen que la mortandad de estos alumnos culminó el día 33 como lo afirman otras grandes autoridades, entre ellas la obra citada obra Hamanhig. En incluso a partir de la noche del 33 hay comunidades ashkenazitas que autorizan contraer enlace.

Está permitido realizar un banquete de compromiso (“tenaím”,  en que se oficializa el noviazgo) durante los días del ´omer, incluso con instrumentos musicales. El banquete de compromiso  posterior, que se realiza después de los citados “tenaím”, es permitido realizarlo sin utilizar instrumentos musicales.

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