Halacha for Monday 4 Kislev 5782 November 8 2021

The Mitzvah of Kiddush on Shabbat Morning

In the previous Halachot, we have explained the fundamental laws of Kiddush on Shabbat night. Let us now discuss some of the laws of Kiddush on Shabbat morning.

The Gemara (Pesachim 106a) states, “Our Sages taught: ‘Remember the day of Shabbat to sanctify it,’ remember it upon wine at its entrance (at night). How do we know that Kiddush must be recited on Shabbat day as well? The verse states, ‘The day of Shabbat.’” We derive from this Gemara that it is a Mitzvah to recite Kiddush on both the night and day of Shabbat. Nevertheless, on Shabbat morning, we do not recite the “Mekadesh Ha’Shabbat” blessing; rather, we recite only the “Boreh Peri Ha’Gefen” blessing as the Gemara (ibid.) states. The Shabbat morning Kiddush is called the “Grand Kiddush”.

Most Rishonim are of the opinion that the Mitzvah of Kiddush on Shabbat morning is not a Torah obligation and is only rabbinic. When the Gemara states the Mitzvah of Kiddush on Shabbat morning is derived from the verse of “The day of Shabbat”, this is merely a rabbinic law whose source is hinted in the Torah but is not actually a Torah commandment. On the other hand, according to the Maharam of Rottenberg, Kiddush on Shabbat morning is a Torah obligation as it is on Shabbat night. Thus, although the Maharam would customarily fast on Rosh Hashanah, he would nevertheless recite Kiddush on wine, for he maintained that this was a Torah obligation. However, as we have established, the vast majority of Poskim maintain that Kiddush on Shabbat morning is merely a rabbinic enactment.

The Rambam writes that one may not taste any food or beverage before reciting Kiddush on Shabbat morning. This means that one who returns home from the Shabbat morning prayers of Shacharit and Mussaf may not taste anything until one recites Kiddush. Nevertheless, one may have some tea or coffee before morning prayers on Shabbat as one would during the rest of the week since the obligation to recite Kiddush only takes effect after one has prayed.

Although some Poskim disagree with the Rambam on this issue and write that the only prohibition to eat or drink before Kiddush only applies on Shabbat not and not on Shabbat day (which is indeed the opinion of the Ra’avad), nevertheless, we follow the opinion of the Rambam on this matter, for this is indeed the opinion of Maran Ha’Shulchan Aruch as well, whose rulings we have accepted. Only after reciting Kiddush may one partake of cakes, cookies, and the like and drink whatever one wishes or to wash one’s hands and partake of the Shabbat day meal.

Summary: One must recite Kiddush on Shabbat morning. This is a rabbinic enactment and is not a Torah obligation. Once one becomes obligated to recite Kiddush, i.e. after Shacharit and Mussaf prayers, one may not taste any food or beverage until one recites Kiddush. Nevertheless, one may drink either tea, coffee, or water before prayers as one would on any other weekday.

Ask the Rabbi


8 Halachot Most Popular

Eating Meat Following Rosh Chodesh Av

The Mishnah in Masechet Ta’anit (26b) tells us that on Erev Tisha Be’av during the last meal one eats before the fast, one may not eat meat, drink wine, or eat two cooked foods, such as rice and an egg. Although the letter of the law dictates that the prohibition to eat meat only applies......

Read Halacha

Laws Pertaining to Tisha Be’av

There are five categories of abstinence which must be observed on Tisha Be’av: Eating and drinking, washing one’s self, rubbing one’s body with oils or lotions, wearing leather shoes, and marital relations. Our Sages also prohibited learning Torah on Tisha Be’av, for the word......

Read Halacha

Havdala on Motza’ei Shabbat Which Coincides with Tisha Be’av and the Laws of an Ill Individual Who Must Eat on Tisha Be’av

On years during which Tisha Be’av falls out on Motza’ei Shabbat, such as this year, 5782, there are three opinions among the Rishonim regarding how Havdala should be recited on a cup of wine on Motza’ei Shabbat. The first opinion is that of the Geonim who write that one should r......

Read Halacha

The Laws of Taking Haircuts During the “Three Weeks"- The Year 5782

The Customary Prohibition of Haircuts As a result of the mourning observed during the “Three Weeks,” the Ashkenazi custom is to abstain from shaving and taking haircuts beginning from the Seventeenth of Tammuz until the Tenth of Av. Nevertheless, the Sephardic custom is not as string......

Read Halacha


Those Who are Obligated and Exempt from the Fast of Tisha Be’av and their Status When Tisha Be’av Falls Out on Motza’ei Shabbat

Someone Ill with a Non-Life-Threatening Illness, An Elderly Person, and a Woman who has Recently Given Birth One who is ill (meaning when one is actually bedridden and the like, even if the illness is not life-threatening) is exempt from fasting on Tisha Be’av. When in doubt about one’s......

Read Halacha

When Av Begins, We Diminish Our Joy

This coming Friday will mark Rosh Chodesh Av. Next Shabbat will mark Tisha Be’av, however, since fast days are prohibited on Shabbat (besides for Yom Kippur), Tisha Be’av will be observed next Motza’ei Shabbat and Sunday. May Hashem soon switch this month to one of joy and celebrat......

Read Halacha

Frying Fish in a Meat Pot, Baking Fish and Meat in the Same Oven, and Maran zt”l’s Custom

There is a well-known prohibition of eating fish and meat together, as discussed by the Gemara and Poskim. Cooking Fish in a Meat Pot Although it is prohibited to cook a dairy dish in a meat pot as we have discussed in a previous Halacha, nevertheless, Maran Rabbeinu Ovadia Yosef zt”l writ......

Read Halacha

The Laws of the Last Meal Before the Fast of Tisha Be’av on Shabbat

On Erev Tisha Be’av, our Sages prohibited eating meat and drinking wine during the last meal before the onset of the fast of Tisha Be’av held after halachic midday. They likewise forbade eating two cooked foods during this meal.  Nevertheless, this year, 5782, since the fast of T......

Read Halacha