Halacha for Monday 19 Tammuz 5782 July 18 2022

The “Three Weeks”- The Words of Maran zt”l

The Period of the “Three Weeks”
The three-week period between the Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth of Av is dubbed by our Sages “Between the Straits,” based on the verse (Eicha 1, 3), “All of her enemies overtook her between the straits.” Our Sages tell us that these three weeks between the Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth of Av are when our enemies entered the holy city of Jerusalem and massacred countless Jewish people until the Ninth of Av when they finally succeeded in destroying the Holy Temple. From that day on, the Jewish people no longer dwell securely, and we must endure enemies attacking us from the outside as well as within.

Although, thank G-d, we have merited returning to the holy land relatively freely, we have nevertheless not yet merited the ultimate redemption, for our Bet Hamikdash still lies in ruins, the nations of the world are constantly on the offensive against the Jewish nation, and our tragedies multiply exponentially every day. We are indeed very spiritually distant from the final redemption, and we hope and pray that Hashem pities us and redeems us once and for all, speedily in our days.

Everyone should be well aware of the woes of the exile and never to become complacent, for these days are not merely regular days when we are obligated to observe mourning customs. Rather, these days are intrinsically days of mourning when we bemoan the destruction of the Bet Hamikdash and the delay of the Final Redemption.

Maran zt”l would say that more than we cry for what happened almost two-thousand years ago, we are crying for what happened in our generation, i.e., the Holocaust. He would remind the audience of the million sweet children who found their deaths at the hands of the Nazis and the six million Jews who perished in the most gruesome ways. We need to cry for them as well! Indeed, our Sages taught, one who mourns over Jerusalem shall merit to see its joy and splendor.

The Levels of Mourning during this Period and the Laws of the Week during which Tisha Be’av Falls Out This Year
In the following Halachot we shall, G-d-willing, discuss the laws of the “Three Weeks.” There are various degrees of mourning observed during this period: From the Seventeenth of Tammuz until Rosh Chodesh Av, few mourning customs are observed. From the day of Rosh Chodesh Av, some more mourning customs are added. During the week during which Tisha Be’av falls out, even more mourning customs are observed.

The Week During Which Tisha Be’av Falls Out- 5782
This year (5782), Tisha Be’av will fall out on Shabbat and the fast will therefore be postponed until Sunday. Thus, the Sephardic custom, in accordance with the ruling of Maran Ha’Shulchan Aruch, is that we do not observe any of the laws of mourning associated with the week during which Tisha Be’av falls out. Ashkenazi Jews, however, begin observing these laws from Rosh Chodesh Av, in any case, as we shall explain in a following Halacha.

Reciting “Tikkun Chatzot
Since these days are a time of mourning for the Jewish nation, we customarily observe some customs pertaining to mourning. Pious and upstanding people customarily recite “Tikkun Chatzot” (Psalms and prayers related to the destruction of the Bet Hamikdash) after halachic midday during the “Three Weeks” (Halachic midday is calculated by splitting the nighttime hours between sunset and sunrise and the mid-point is Halachic midnight. The exact same time during the day is Halachic midday. Many Jewish calendars state either only Halachic midnight or midday since they are in essence the same time.) “Tikkun Rachel,” which includes verses that lament the destruction of the Bet Hamikdash, is recited. Maran Ha’Chida in his works “Moreh Be’Etzba” and “Yosef Ometz” writes that this is an ancient custom that was observed in Israel based on the words of the holy Arizal. He writes that the custom is to recite “Tikkun Rachel” because it is based on weeping and lamentation for the destruction of holy Temple. He adds in the name of the Ari who writes that it is a worthy custom to sit and mourn after the Halachic midday every day during the “Three Weeks,” including shedding actual tears for the destruction of the Bet Hamikdash. Through reciting “Tikkun Chatzot,” one will surely be moved to tears because of the sorrow of the destruction of the Bet Hamikdash and all of the other suffering we and our forefathers have endured during this long and arduous exile.

Indeed, Maran Rabbeinu Ovadia Yosef zt”l would encourage his congregation to recite “Tikkun Chatzot” after halachic midday during this period of the “Three Weeks.” (“Tikkun Rachel” is printed in most Siddurim.) This was indeed the custom in Yeshivat Porat Yosef in Jerusalem. Some actually have the custom to recite “Tikkun Chatzot” throughout the entire year after halachic midnight, and they shall indeed be blessed.

We should point out that it is worthy to recite “Tikkun Chatzot” throughout the year following halachic midnight. When Maran zt”l would recite “Tikkun Chatzot,” he would shed copious tears about the suffering of the Jewish nation and the fact that the Mashiach had not yet arrived.

May Hashem grant our eyes the merit to see the comforting of Zion through the rebuilding of Jerusalem, Amen.

Ask the Rabbi


ספר אביר הרועים - בית מידות
ספר אביר הרועים
לפרטים לחץ כאן

הלכה יומית מפי הראש"ל הגאון רבי יצחק יוסף שליט"א

דין ברכת שפטרנו מעונשו של זה
לחץ כאן לצפייה בשיעורים נוספים

Recent Halachot

"תנא דבי אליהו כל השונה הלכות בכל יום מובטח לו שהוא בן העולם הבא"

נדה ע"ג א'

8 Halachot Most Popular

Eating Meat Following Rosh Chodesh Av

The Mishnah in Masechet Ta’anit (26b) tells us that on Erev Tisha Be’av during the last meal one eats before the fast, one may not eat meat, drink wine, or eat two cooked foods, such as rice and an egg. Although the letter of the law dictates that the prohibition to eat meat only applies......

Read Halacha

Laws Pertaining to Tisha Be’av

There are five categories of abstinence which must be observed on Tisha Be’av: Eating and drinking, washing one’s self, rubbing one’s body with oils or lotions, wearing leather shoes, and marital relations. Our Sages also prohibited learning Torah on Tisha Be’av, for the word......

Read Halacha

Havdala on Motza’ei Shabbat Which Coincides with Tisha Be’av and the Laws of an Ill Individual Who Must Eat on Tisha Be’av

On years during which Tisha Be’av falls out on Motza’ei Shabbat, such as this year, 5782, there are three opinions among the Rishonim regarding how Havdala should be recited on a cup of wine on Motza’ei Shabbat. The first opinion is that of the Geonim who write that one should r......

Read Halacha

The Laws of Taking Haircuts During the “Three Weeks"- The Year 5782

The Customary Prohibition of Haircuts As a result of the mourning observed during the “Three Weeks,” the Ashkenazi custom is to abstain from shaving and taking haircuts beginning from the Seventeenth of Tammuz until the Tenth of Av. Nevertheless, the Sephardic custom is not as string......

Read Halacha


Those Who are Obligated and Exempt from the Fast of Tisha Be’av and their Status When Tisha Be’av Falls Out on Motza’ei Shabbat

Someone Ill with a Non-Life-Threatening Illness, An Elderly Person, and a Woman who has Recently Given Birth One who is ill (meaning when one is actually bedridden and the like, even if the illness is not life-threatening) is exempt from fasting on Tisha Be’av. When in doubt about one’s......

Read Halacha

Frying Fish in a Meat Pot, Baking Fish and Meat in the Same Oven, and Maran zt”l’s Custom

There is a well-known prohibition of eating fish and meat together, as discussed by the Gemara and Poskim. Cooking Fish in a Meat Pot Although it is prohibited to cook a dairy dish in a meat pot as we have discussed in a previous Halacha, nevertheless, Maran Rabbeinu Ovadia Yosef zt”l writ......

Read Halacha

When Av Begins, We Diminish Our Joy

This coming Friday will mark Rosh Chodesh Av. Next Shabbat will mark Tisha Be’av, however, since fast days are prohibited on Shabbat (besides for Yom Kippur), Tisha Be’av will be observed next Motza’ei Shabbat and Sunday. May Hashem soon switch this month to one of joy and celebrat......

Read Halacha

The Laws of the Last Meal Before the Fast of Tisha Be’av on Shabbat

On Erev Tisha Be’av, our Sages prohibited eating meat and drinking wine during the last meal before the onset of the fast of Tisha Be’av held after halachic midday. They likewise forbade eating two cooked foods during this meal.  Nevertheless, this year, 5782, since the fast of T......

Read Halacha