Halacha for Thursday 29 Iyar 5784 June 6 2024

The Laws of the Second Day of Yom Tov in the Diaspora (Continued)

We have already discussed that an Israeli resident who currently finds himself outside of Israel, for instance, when he travels due to a family occasion and the like, must conduct himself like the residents of the place he is in (outside of Israel) besides for several exceptions, such as regarding prayer and the like. We shall now discuss the things an Israeli resident may do on the second day of Yom Tov during his stay outside of Israel.

When our Sages enacted that he may not perform any forbidden works, this only applies in a place where Jews are present; however, if he is in a place where there are no Jews, he may perform work. If he is in a place where there are Jews, it is preferable that he not perform work even in private (meaning that even when he is home alone, he should not perform work). Nevertheless, he may move an object which is Muktzeh in private on the second day of Yom Tov.

An Israeli resident visiting abroad may turn on an electric light on the second day of Yom Tov as long as there is no one around to see him turning on the light so as not to cause others to suspect him of desecrating the holiness of Yom Tov. Although there may be those outside who may notice the lights turning on inside the house, this is still not an issue, since nowadays it is commonplace for people to make use of timers to turn on and off the lights, no one will suspect him of turning on the light on Yom Tov. Hagaon Harav Moshe Feinstein zt”l rules accordingly in his Igrot Moshe (Orach Chaim Volume 4, Chapter 104).

If an Israeli resident has a factory outside of Israel run by non-Jewish workers, he may allow them to operate the factory on the second day of Yom Tov, for since he is an Israeli resident, the holiness of the second day of Yom Tov does not apply to him at all and it considered a completely mundane weekday for him and he need not abstain from work on this day. Similarly, if a resident of a place outside of Israel owns a factory in Israel, if the workers are Jewish, Israeli residents, they may indeed resume their work as usual on the second day of Yom Tov in the Diaspora since for them it is a regular weekday and they may work on this day; furthermore, they are not bound by the factory owner’s prohibition to work on this day.

Residents of places outside of Israel who are visiting Israel for the holidays are considered like any other non-Israeli residents in every aspect and they must observe two days of Yom Tov as though they would be outside of Israel. They may not make use of public transportation and the like even though the driver is an Israeli resident (for their additional weight on the bus causes a greater form of “ignition” in the bus’s motor). Nevertheless, an Israeli resident may perform work for his friend from outside of Israel. Similarly, a non-Israeli resident may ask his Israeli friend to perform work for him on the second day of Yom Tov.

Non-Israeli residents may form a Minyan in Israel on the second day of Yom Tov in order to pray their Yom Tov prayers; this includes the reading of the Yom Tov Torah and Haftara portions that are read just as they would be read outside of Israel. If a Minyan of non-Israeli residents cannot be found, they should pray alone (without a Minyan) and in private; Israeli-residents cannot join to form such a Minyan.

After the first day of Yom Tov has ended, Israeli residents (celebrating Yom Tov abroad) must make Havdala in the Amidah prayer by reciting the text of “Ata Chonantanu” as they would on Motza’ei Shabbat, after which they must recite Havdala once again upon a cup of wine in private.

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