In the previous Halacha, we have explained that our Sages forbade kneading and baking a bread dough with milk, for there is concern that others may mistakenly eat this bread with meat. Similarly, one may not bake a bread dough mixed with meat ingredients so that others do not come to eat it with dairy.
We have mentioned the opinion of the Shulchan Aruch and other Poskim who rule that the above will be permissible if there is a noticeable distinction in the shape of the dough such that people will realize that the bread is dairy or if one is baking only a small amount.
Maran Ha’Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De’ah, Chapter 97) rules, as follows: “One may not knead a dough with milk lest one mistakenly eat it with meat. However, if the amount is small enough for eating it in one sitting, this is permissible.”
Maran in his Bet Yosef quotes the words of Rabbeinu Yitzchak of Düren Sha’are Dura (Chapter 35) who writes that there is no prohibition regarding those breads baked in honor of Shabbat together with meat dishes in the same oven since this is considered a small amount and is eaten quickly on Shabbat.
Thus, according to Maran Ha’Shulchan Aruch, a small amount of dough that is permitted to be kneaded with milk (or meat) ingredients refers to an amount eaten during one single meal in which case no one will mistakenly eat the bread with meat since those eating know it is dairy. However, if this bread will last for a longer time, there is then the concern that others may eat this bread with meat.
Nevertheless, the Rama writes in his Torat Chatat that a small amount refers to an amount eaten in one day and not specifically in one meal. He proceeds to write in his gloss on the Shulchan Aruch that it is customary to knead dough with milk for the Shavuot holiday or dough with animal fat in honor of Shabbat as all of this is considered a small amount.
The Kaf Ha’Chaim writes that according to the Rama, it is permissible to bake dairy or meat breads or baked goods when one intends to eat them within one day. However, according to Sephardic and Middle Eastern Jews who have accepted the rulings of Maran Ha’Shulchan Aruch, this would only be permissible when these baked goods are eaten in one sitting/meal.
Furthermore, when we speak of one meal, this refers to all who are joining in the meal and it will be permissible to bake an amount of dairy baked goods that will suffice for all diners partaking of this meal.