Question: If one forgets to mention “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo” in the Shacharit prayer of Rosh Chodesh and remembers only after the time for prayer has passed, what should one do? Additionally, what is the law regarding a woman who has forgotten to insert “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo” into her Rosh Chodesh prayer?
Answer: In the previous Halacha we have discussed that if one recites the Amidah of the Shacharit or Mincha prayer on Rosh Chodesh, forgets to add “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo”, and remembers only after having concluded one’s Amidah prayer, one must repeat the Amidah a second time.
A Brief Overview of the Laws of a Compensatory Prayer
Regarding our question, if one completely forgets to pray any given prayer, for instance, if one has not prayed Shacharit, and the time for that prayer has passed, one must recite the next prayer of the day twice. For example, if one forgets to pray Shacharit and the time for Shacharit prayers has already passed, one must then pray Mincha twice: the first time corresponding to the Mincha prayer and the second acting as a compensatory prayer for the Shacharit one missed.
A Compensatory Prayer for One Who Forgets “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo”
The above law applies to one who forgets to add “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo” in the Amidah prayer and remembers only after the time for praying Shacharit has already passed (which is passed halachic midday, at this time of year at approximately 11:20 AM in Israel and 12:40 PM in New York). The law in such a scenario will be equal to the law of one who has completely forgotten to pray any given prayer and the time for that prayer passes in which case one will have to recite the following prayer of the day and immediately afterwards recite a compensatory prayer.
Thus, in our situation where one has forgotten to insert “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo” and the time for Shacharit has passed, one must recite a compensatory prayer for the Shacharit one has not prayed adequately immediately after reciting the Amidah prayer of Mincha.
One Who Forgets to Mention “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo” and Completely Forgets to Pray Mussaf
Nevertheless, if one makes a double error, i.e. not only did one forget to insert “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo” in Shacharit but one has also forgotten to pray Mussaf (seemingly because one did not attend the synagogue and it has completely slipped his mind that the day is Rosh Chodesh) and only remembers after the time for prayer has passed, one must first pray Mincha after which one recites a “reimbursement” prayer for Shacharit and only then should one pray Mussaf. The reason for this is because the time for the Mussaf prayer spans the entire day (i.e. one may pray Mussaf even after halachic midday until sunset), however, one cannot pray Mussaf before praying Shacharit, for Shacharit precedes Mussaf and one cannot pray Shacharit, for the time for Shacharit has already passed. Thus, one must first pray Mincha, then recite a “reimbursement” prayer for the inadequate Shacharit, and only then may one pray Mussaf.
A Woman Who Forgets to Add “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo”
The laws of a woman who forgets to insert “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo” in her Amidah prayer of Rosh Chodesh are equal to the laws of a man and she must repeat the Amidah based on all of the detailed laws mentioned above and in the previous Halacha.
Summary: One who forgets to insert “Ya’aleh Ve’Yavo” in a Rosh Chodesh prayer must repeat the Amidah once again.
If one remembers only after halachic midday, one must pray Mincha and immediately thereafter recite another Amidah as a compensatory prayer for Shacharit. If, in addition, one has forgotten to pray Mussaf and halachic midday has passed, one must first pray Mincha, then a compensatory prayer for Shacharit, and only then one should pray Mussaf. A woman’s law is equal to a man’s regarding all of these detailed laws.